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Santa María volcano eruption 2013 damage

Latest GVP weekly volcano report addition for Santa Maria volcano was on the week of August 7 - 13, 2013: INSIVUMEH reported that two explosions on August 7 from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex were followed by white plumes that rose 500 m. Pyroclastic material descended the E, S, and SW flanks Symmetrical, forest-covered Santa María volcano is part of a chain of large stratovolcanoes that rise above the Pacific coastal plain of Guatemala. The sharp-topped, conical profile is cut on the SW flank by a 1.5-km-wide crater. The oval-shaped crater extends from just below the summit to the lower flank, and was formed during a catastrophic eruption in 1902. The renowned Plinian eruption of. The Santa Maria Volcano is a stratovolcano: a symmetrical cone with steep slopes made from alternating layers of lava, ash, cinders, and other volcanic materials. Covered by forest, Santa Maria is part of a larger chain of volcanoes along Guatemala's Pacific coastal plain. Its October 26 eruption was quite mild compared to earlier activity The Plinian eruption killed at least 5000 people (undoubtedly an underestimate) and tore a gaping hole in the south flank of the cone, and darkened the skies over Guatemala for days (Sapper 1903).The worldwide impact was significant, as ash was detected as far away as San Francisco, CA

Why a Volcano Has Erupted Almost Every Hour for 94 Years. The Santiaguito lava dome under Guatemala's Santa Maria Volcano is one of the most regular erupting features in the world The pumice formed in the climactic eruption fell over an area of about 273,000 square kilometres (105,000 sq mi), and volcanic ash as far away as San Francisco, 4,000 kilometres (2,500 mi) away Santa Maria Volcano Geology and Hazards. Santa María is a ~30,000 year old andesitic stratovolcano built on a basement of older rocks formed by ancient volcanic eruptions. The 0.5 km3 (0.1 mi3) crater in the south flank of the volcano exposes a spectacular sequence of alternating pyroclastic and lava flows and lahar deposits

The eruption devastated 120,000 square miles of surrounding territory and killed 5,000 people. The first eruption of Santa Maria in recorded history occurred on October 24, 1902. Before 1902 it had been dormant for at least five hundred years The eruption caused no damage on land. 1547: An earthquake rocked the northeastern part of Terceira Island. It happened on 17 May and damaged Raminho, (Folhadais), Altares, and Biscoitos. 1562-1564: A volcanic eruption on Prainha do Norte, Pico Island. On 21 September 1562 tremors lasting for a third of an hour shook the land, and were. The eruption of Santa Maria volcano in 1902 was one of the largest eruptions of the 20 th century, forming a large crater on the mountain's southwest flank. Since 1922, a lava-dome complex, Santiaguito, has been forming in the 1902 crater. Growth of the dome has produced pyroclastic flows as recently as the 2001—they can be identified in this image Symmetrical, forest-covered Santa María volcano is part of a chain of large stratovolcanoes that rise above the Pacific coastal plain of Guatemala. The sharp-topped, conical profile is cut on the SW flank by a 1.5-km-wide crater

Major eruption at Santa Maria volcano, Guatemal

The 1902 eruption of Santa María volcano, Guatemala, has long been recognised as one of the largest eruptions of the 20th century (e.g., Rose Jr., 1972), or one of the greatest volcanic eruptions of modern times (Church et al., 1908); it is also the largest historic eruption in Guatemala.As a result, it was designated an IAVCEI Decade Volcano as part of the UN-sponsored International. Santa Maria is a stratovolcano made of basaltic andesite. The 1902 eruption of Santa Maria lasted 19 days and produced 1.3 cubic miles (5.5 cubic km) of dacite pyroclastic debris. The largest plinian eruption was on October 25 and produced a column about 16 miles (28 km) high. The eruption formed a large crater in the southwest flank of the. Volcan Santa Maria in Guatemala. In October of 1902, following several months of significant earthquakes, Santa Maria experienced a VEI 6 Plinian eruption that completely devastated the countryside for miles around (much of it was, as it is now, covered with coffee plantations and small farms) Santa Maria volcano is located 60 km from the Pacific coast of Guatemala, 100 km west of Guatemala City. Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. 2013 Eruptions Eruptions continue at Santa Maria volcano in January 2013 with explosions to altitude 2800 m and active lava flow producing avalanches

Global Volcanism Program Santa Marí

The towns and cities close to the volcano had ash mix with the air that caused it be dangerous for people to breath in and it damaged some of the crops Santiaguito volcano. Santiaguito is the name of the dome complex that grew inside the collapse scar left by the catastrophic eruption and partial collapse of Santa María stratovolcano in 1902. Its currently active dome is called Caliente (the hot one). Symmetrical, forest-covered Santa María volcano is one of the most prominent of a chain.

The coffee industry in the region suffered huge economic damage due to the ashfall October 24, 1902 - Santa Maria in Guatemala erupts, resulting in about 2,500 deaths. (VEI 6) (VEI 6) June 6, 1912 - Novarupta volcano erupts in Alaska, killing two people

Santa Maria Erupts - NAS

ERUPTION HISTORY - Michigan Technological Universit

  1. Edition of Santa Maria Times. Sunday, August 11, 2013 Post-Benghazi, Obama plays it safe with embassies Extra caution displayed Bradley Klapper associated press WASHINGTON - President Barack Obama.
  2. Santa María is a large active volcano in the Western Highlands of Guatemala, close to the city of Quetzaltenango. It is the second tallest peak in Central America with close-by Tajumulco taking first place. Its eruption in 1902 was one of the three largest eruptions of the 20th century. The 1902 eruption blasted away most of one side of the.
  3. Hiked the Santa Maria Volcano today by ourselves. We got the chicken bus for 2.5Q to Pinal by the cemetery and hiked from there - starting hiking at 6.45 ish and got to the top at 9.20. Nice hike, tough at times especially the last hour but doable, slow and steady ☺️ Lots of rubbish however on the trail which was sad to see, especially at.

Santa Maria Volcanic Eruption - Guatemala - October 24, 1902. Santa Maria's first eruption in five hundred years exploded into action with a VEI of 6, the same size as that of Krakatau. The eruption devastated 120,000 square miles of surrounding territory and killed 5,000 people. The first eruption of Santa Maria in recorded history. On our way to visit the Santiaguito Volcano Observatory, Gustavo Chigna of INSIVUMEH (the Guatemalan equivalent of the USGS) was kind enough to take an afternoon off and show us some of the older deposits near Santiaguito. Our first stops were at an exposure of the air-fall deposit from the October 24, 1902 eruption of Volcán Santa Maria. This eruption was a devastating one, stripping the. The image shows the entire volcanic hazard zone associated with Santa María Volcano, extending downslope to the south from the volcano (3770 m elevation)to the sea level. The volcano itself is located at the upper right of the figure, and a transparent eruption cloud (white) which is drifting to the south of the volcano can also be seen In June 2013, Etna was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In March 2017, during the next volcanic eruption in Sicily, ten people were injured. Santa Maria Guatemala. Santa Maria volcano in Guatemala in person. The volcano of Santa Maria rises above the Pacific coastal plain of Guatemala The October, 1902, eruption of Santa Maria Volcano, Guatemala, was one of the largest this century. It was preceded by a great earthquake on April 19 centered at the volcano, as well as numerous other major earthquakes. The 18-20 hour-long plinian eruption on October 25 produced a column at least 28 km high, reaching well into the stratosphere

Santiaguito Lava Dome Under Guatemala's Santa Maria

Source: Wikimedia Commons via Julio Yaquier The Santa María volcanic eruption of 1902 produced one of the world's most active lava dome complexes, which is called Santiaguito. The lava domes began forming 20 years after the Santa María volcano erupted and they have continued to grow since then.. In addition to leaving long-lasting effects, the 1902 Santa María volcanic eruption was large. June 6, 1912 - Novarupta volcano erupts in Alaska, killing two people. It is the largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century. (VEI 6) January 20, 1913 - Colima in Mexico erupts. The number of. One of Japan's most active volcanoes is due for a major eruption within the next 30 years, say scientists who have studied a build-up of magma there. The Sakurajima volcano on Japan's Kyushu. 12. Santa Maria in 1902 After being dormant for 500 years, Santa María (located in the highlands of Guatemala) erupted on October 24, 1902. The largest explosion ejected piles of magma into the area. Because of the lack of volcanic activity at Santa María, the local people did not recognize the preceding warning signs of an eruption Villages on the slopes of Fuego volcano were buried in volcanic ash, mud and rocks during Sunday's 16-hour eruption. Pyroclastic flows, which are fast-moving mixtures of very hot gas and volcanic.

The Santa María Volcano, which sits right above the city of Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, has been continuously erupting since 2003. The Decade Volcanoes program has brought together geologists, volcanologists, and government officials to closely study these volcanoes and create risk-mitigation plans for potential eruptions The eruption of Krakatoa, or Krakatau, in August 1883 was one of the most deadly volcanic eruptions of modern history. It is estimated that more than 36,000 people died The eruption of the Eyjafjallajokull volcano is unlikely to have any significant impact on climate but has caused a small fall in carbon emissions, experts say. Although large eruptions such as Mount Pinatubo in 1991 can spew out enough material to shade and cool the planet, recent activity in Iceland is very small in comparison. The ash cloud has not reached the high atmosphere, where it.

The Fuego Volcano eruption on 3 June has been the deadliest volcanic eruption in the country since 1902, when Santa Maria Volcano erupted killing some 6,000 people. Other minor eruptions were registered after 1902, without leaving any damage or casualties. The latest eruptions occurred in May 1998 and January 2000 of the Pacaya volcano Santiaguito volcano, Guatemala, burst into life in 1922 and is now the second longest continuing eruption. It has outlasted both Stromboli (Italy) and Sangay (Ecuador), both erupting since 1934, and is only outdone by Yasur (Vanuatu), which has been erupting at least since 1774, when first visited by Captain Cook.. These long-lived eruptions give us an unusual opportunity to use the slowly. Santa Maria volcano is a large volcano in northern Guatemala (Central America) that was partly destroyed in a major explosive eruption in 1902. Since the early 1920's, an eruption in the crater formed by the 1902 eruption has slowly built up a series of lava flows and lava domes. This eruption is still going today, [

Eruptions at Santa Maria are estimated to have begun about 30,000 years ago. For several thousand years the eruptions were small and frequent, then in 1902 a strong eruption caused severe damage throughout southwestern Guatemala and carved a crater on the volcano's flank It wasn't the 2013 eruption which lasted six weeks or the 2015 eruption that created a lightning storm of colliding ash over the mountain. Nor was it the Christmas Eve 2018 eruption which included an earthquake that leveled buildings, displaced families, and closed businesses. No, this February 2021 eruption was a good one Volcanic eruptions can cause loss of life and livelihoods in exposed communities, damage critical infrastructure, displace populations, disrupt business and add stress to already fragile environments (Blong, 1984). Currently, an estimated 800 million people live within 100 km of a volcano that has the potential to erupt [Chapter 4] Another of Guatemala's active volcanoes is Santa María, a large stratovolcano with an elevation of 3772 meters, Oregon State University reports. Located in the country's western highlands, Santa María is responsible for one of the biggest eruptions of the twentieth century, Geology reports. This happened in 1902, after a series of. Sakurajima, a stratovolcano on the the island of Kyushu, is one of the most active volcanoes on Earth. Since it's first recorded eruption in A.D. 708, Sakurajima has been in nearly constant eruption. Most eruptions are Stombolian in character and effect only the summit of the volcano. However, deaths were caused by pyroclastic flows, tsunami.

Flag as Inappropriate. Santa Maria Volcano located in Guatemala. Latitude - 14.758 ° North Country - Guatemala. Continent - North America Longitude - 091.548 ° West. Elevation - 12,372 ft. Location - Subduction zone of the Cocos Plate moving under the Caribbean Plate. volcano_works_cited.docx. File Size Santiaguito volcano, Guatemala, burst into life in 1922 and is now the second longest continuing eruption. It has outlasted both Stromboli (Italy) and Sangay (Ecuador), both erupting since 1934, and is only outdone by Yasur (Vanuatu), which has been erupting at least since 1774, when first visited by Captain Cook. These long-lived eruptions give us an unusual opportunity to use the slowly.

18. Santa Maria. The 1902 Santa Maria eruption constitutes one of the biggest eruptions in recent history, and the largest ever recorded in Guatemala. The eruption sent thousands of tons of volcanic debris into the atmosphere and created a huge crater of almost a mile wide on the southwest side of the peak Mount Etna, Latin Aetna, Sicilian Mongibello, active volcano on the east coast of Sicily.The name comes from the Greek Aitne, from aithō, I burn.Mount Etna is the highest active volcano in Europe, its topmost elevation being about 10,900 feet (3,320 metres).Like other active volcanoes, it varies in height, increasing from deposition during eruptions and decreasing from the periodic. volcanic eruption. The size and explosiveness of an eruption are also controlled by the amount of magma in the magma chamber, the magma's chemical composition, and the pressure change in the narrow conduit that leads to Earth's surface. Q. What kinds of hazards are associated with volcanic eruptions? A Nevertheless, lots of people still enjoy climbing 12,300-foot-high Santa Maria so they can look down on an eruption and take silly pictures. That dome complex has existed since 1929, when Santa Maria ended 27 years of violent eruptions that killed over 7,000 people. But Santa Maria/Santiaguito's Decade Volcano status hasn't led to many. By the way, there is a third Guatemalan volcano eruption ongoing nearby, too — at Santa Maria's Santiaguito dome complex, 140 miles west of the capital — but that one is staying at the same level so far. Getting back to the star performer Pacaya, here are: A drone view of its rather thuggish and scary summit in 2017

5. Santa Maria Stocktrek Images/Richard Roscoe / Getty Images. This magnificent volcano, located in Guatemala, caused one of the largest eruptions in recent memory when the mountain exploded in 1902. The volcano is considered dangerous because a huge lava-dome structure formed in the crater caused by the 1902 eruption Stromboli: Introduction. Stromboli is one of the most active volcanoes on Earth and has been erupting almost continuously since 1932. Because it has been active for much of the last 2,000 years and its eruptions are visible for long distances at night, it is known as the Lighthouse of the Mediterranean St Vincent is a volcanic island, and part of the arcuate chain of the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc.The active volcano on St Vincent is called the Soufrière; a name that describes its sulfurous nature, and shared by other volcanoes in the Antilles including the Soufrière Hills volcano (Montserrat), and the Soufrière of Guadeloupe.. While the geological record of past eruptions of St Vincent. Take a 3-Day, $500 Getaway. Santa Maria Valley is full of genuine experiences with true value that are begging to be explored. Take a three-day trip for less than $500 where you can explore the beauty of the valley and drink award-winning wines paired with authentic Santa Maria Style Barbecue

Santa María (volcano) - Wikipedi

At least thirty five people died, and substantial damage occurred in the worst hit area. 0. ResourceGuy January 17, 2021 8:55 am Send in John Kerry to negotiate with the volcano with U.S. funding and loans. Krakatoa, Santa Maria and Novarupta volcanic eruptions, and concludes that the Pinatubo, El Chichon and St Helens eruptions were. There are many types of volcanoes namely: active, dormant, and extinct. The ones that erupt and can cause damage are classified as active volcanoes. Here are the 10 Most Active Volcanoes identified by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (IAVCEI): Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland Icelandic for Island mountain glacier, this volcano is one o

Santa Maria Volcano, Guatemala: Map, Facts and Picture

The eruption of Volcan de Fuego is Guatemala's largest volcanic eruption since the 1902 eruption of the Santa Maria volcano, which killed thousands. victims and enormous material damage which. Update: With the recent (April 2010) eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, the volcano in Iceland, this list is more interesting than ever. The volcano has erupted for the second time in less than a month, melting ice, shooting smoke and steam into the air, reducing air quality and forcing hundreds of people to flee rising floodwaters. The volcanic ash has forced the cancellation of many flights and.

Santa Maria Volcanic Eruption - Guatemala - October 24

Santiaguito volcano, Guatemala, burst into life in 1922 and is now the second longest continuing eruption. It has outlasted both Stromboli (Italy) and Sangay (Ecuador), both erupting since 1934, and is only outdone by Yasur (Vanuatu), which has been erupting at least since 1774, when first visited by Captain Cook Sakurajima (Japanese: 桜島, literally Cherry blossom Island) is an active composite volcano, formerly an island and now a peninsula, in Kagoshima Prefecture in Kyushu, Japan. The lava flows of the 1914 eruption connected it with the Ōsumi Peninsula. It is the most active volcano in Japan Let's examine recent volcanic eruptions that have had a significant cooling effect on the climate. In the past 200 years, Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines (June 1991), El Chichon (Mexico, 1982), Mt. Agung (Indonesia, 1963), Santa Maria (Guatemala, 1902) Krakatoa (Indonesia, 1883), and Tambora (1815) all created noticeable cooling Sakurajima Volcano used to be an island in Kagoshima Bay until 1914, when one of its explosive eruptions also unleashed lava flows that connected it to the mainland. Now thousands of people live in the area, Kids there wear hardhats, just in case it rains stones on the way to school. 6 Santa Maria/Santiaguito, Guatemal Catania (UK: / k ə ˈ t eɪ n i ə,-ˈ t ɑː n-/, US: /-n j ə, k ə ˈ t æ n i ə /, Sicilian and Italian: [kaˈtaːnja] (), Ancient Greek: Κατάνη) is the second largest city in Sicily, after Palermo, and among the ten largest cities in Italy.It is located on Sicily's east coast, at the base of the active volcano, Mt Aetna, and it faces the Ionian Sea.It is the capital of the 58.

Santa María/Santiaguito's position along the northern extent of the Central American volcanic arc. Late Quaternary stratovolcanoes are marked by bullseyes and include: (1) Eruption History. Volcanic Products. Hazards. Volcanic Risk at Santa María. Decade Volcano Volcanism at Santiaguito began in 1922 in the crater formed during the 1902 Plinian eruption of Santa Maria volcano (Figures 1a-1c). Over the last 100 years, eruptive activity has remained remarkably constant within the Santiaguito dome complex, undergoing cycles of effusion and explosive activity across four vents and over varying timescales.

Natural disasters in the Azores - Wikipedi

At Santa Maria-Santiaguito volcano (Guatemala), a plinian eruption occurred in 1902 and was followed 20 years later by a dome-forming eruption that is still on-going According to the study, sea surface temperature data since 1882 document large El Niño-like patterns following four out of five big eruptions: Santa María (Guatemala) in October 1902, Mount. A new database of volcanic fatalities is presented and analysed, covering the period 1600 to 2010 AD. Data are from four sources: the Smithsonian Institution, Witham (2005), CRED EM-DAT and Munich RE. The data were combined and formatted, with a weighted average fatality figure used where more than one source reports an event; the former two databases were weighted twice as strongly as the. Volcanoes. Volcanoes are vents or fissures in the earth's crust that expel gasses, ash, lava, and rock. The term volcano applies to both the actual vent or hole and the mountain that builds up around the vent as it spews forth material. There have been more than 550 volcanic eruptions on land in recorded in history The myth that a single volcanic eruption puts more CO 2 into the atmosphere than all of mankind to date, let alone 10,000 times more, is one of the most pervasive as well as one of the most.

Santa Maria Volcano, Guatemala - NAS

The volcano experienced its biggest eruption last year, in July, when more than 5,200 people were evacuated as it sent huge clouds of ash as high as 3,500 meters (11,500 feet) into the sky. AFP. An eruption of Fuego also happened as recent as February. This event sent ash over one mile into the sky. Yesterday's eruption is Guatemala's deadliest event since 1902, when an eruption of the Santa Maria volcano killed thousands of people The Fuego volcano eruption is a magma-driven or magmatic eruption. These most commonly occur in stratovolcanoes like Fuego, which are the classic cone-shaped peaks built from layers of ash and. There were 45 eruptions of the volcano in the 20th century alone. Kilauea ejected lava as recently as March of 2011. Santa Maria - Guatemala. Towering over Guatemala's Pacific coastal plain, Santa Maria is a 12,375-foot (3,772-meter) tall stratovolcano consisting of alternating layers of hardened ash, lava and rock

Global Volcanism Program Report on Santa Maria

(Sato et al., 1993; Gao et al., 2008), i.e., the 1883 Krakatau, 1902 Santa Maria, 1963 Agung, 1982 El Chichón, and 1991 Pinatubo eruptions (Table 1). Contrary to the global volcanic cooling trend in the first three years following these large trop A 13‐month flank eruption of Fayal volcano occurred in 1957 and 1958. Intermittent violent explosions (phreatomagmatic) and ejection of ash characterized the eruption during its first 8 months. Fol.. In 1991, the volcano destroyed 4,979 homes and damaged another 70,257. The following year 3,281 homes were destroyed and 3,137 were damaged. Damage following the Mount Pinatubo eruption was usually caused by lahars - rain-induced torrents of volcanic debris that killed people and animals and buried homes in the months after the eruption Santa María volcano (volcán Santiaguito) is a large active volcano located in the Western Highlands of Guatemala, near he city of Quetzaltenango. The volcano has been eruting since May 9, 2014, forcing the authorities to evacuate hundreds of people. Lahar races down a river valley near El Palmar The following eruptions occurred on Saturday, Nov. 23 In Japan, a volcano on Nishino-Shima Island erupted for the first time in 40 years. The eruption resulted in a new island in the Pacific. The Japanese Navy reported that the eruption caused boiling lava to meet sea water that gave rise to plumes of steam and ash. Some 7,000 miles from Japan

The 1902 Plinian eruption of Santa María volcano

L'éruption de 1902, le premier dans le temps historique de Santa María, était l'un des plus grand du monde au cours du 20ème siècle. photo par Dick Stoiber, 1969 (Dartmouth College). - Le dôme de lave de Santiaguito vu d'ici en Décembre 1993, le sommet de Santa María, à 1300 m au-dessus et à son SE, est un dôme de lave dacitique. Volcán de Fuego, an extremely active volcano, sits less than 10 miles east of Antigua. On June 3, 2018, its eruption killed 194 people and left hundreds missing. On November 19, 2018, the volcano erupted again and forced 4,000 residents to evacuate.. The June 2018 eruption was extremely destructive in rural areas as villagers who lived at the base of the volcano were caught by surprise Volcano Eruption Fatalities | John Seach. Volcanic eruptions are not the most dangerous of natural disasters. Eruptions cause less fatalities than earthquakes, hurricanes and famines. In the past 200 years, there have been over 200,000 deaths from volcanic eruptions. Four causes resulted in 91% of the fatalities - famine and epidemic disease. Guatemala's Fuego volcano eruption kills 25. June 4, 2018: Volcán de Fuego in southern Guatemala began a violent volcanic eruption claiming lives of atleast 25 people. Another 46 people are missing, the the authorities from Guatemala's natural disaster commission, known as Conred said. Villages on the slopes of Fuego volcano were buried in. January 17, 2011 - Active Volcanoes of the World: The above global map reflects active volcanoes as of today. The red triangles (items 1 to 8 below) indicate new activity while the yellow triangles (9 to 18) show ongoing events. There is nothing more awe inspiring, freighting and potentially earth changing than volcanoes. Although earthquakes

Santa Maria Volcano World Oregon State Universit

Hudson is one of the most active volcanoes in the Southern Andes—it had one of the largest eruptions of the 20th century in 1991 (VEI = 5) and smaller eruptions in 1971 (VEI = 3), maybe 1973, and 2011 (VEI of 1-2). We use satellite-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and thermal imagery to characterize the activity of Hudson between 2004 and 2011 and during the 2011 eruption Colima volcano is behaving atypically, showing signs similar to a major eruption in 1913, said Mexico's interior ministry. The 1913 eruption, the largest on record since 1576, lasted for 5 days between January 20 and 24. About 800 residents within a 12-km radius of the volcano have been evacuated

Video: October 25, 1902: Santa Maria Erupts! - Magma Cum Laude

Katla is a very active and versatile volcano with a long history of large eruptions, some of which have caused considerable damage The 2010 eruption of Iceland's Eyjafjallajokull volcano, disrupted air travel all over Europe. However, that is very small compared to the potential of this volcanic area The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail Flank vent eruption. The most powerful eruption of the last century occurred in 1912 when the Katmai volcano had a VEI 6 eruption through a flank vent now known as Novarupta some 10½ km away, after which the summit of the Katmai volcano collapsed to form a 3 by 4 km wide and 600 m deep (summit) caldera Geological summary: Symmetrical, forest-covered Santa María volcano is one of the most prominent of a chain of large stratovolcanoes that rises dramatically above the Pacific coastal plain of Guatemala. The stratovolcano has a sharp-topped, conical profile that is cut on the SW flank by a 1.5-km-wide crater Volcanoes. A volcano is an opening in the Earth's crust that allows molten rock, gases, and debris to escape to the surface. Alaska, Hawaii, California, and Oregon have the most active volcanoes, but other states and territories have active volcanoes, too. A volcanic eruption may involve lava and other debris that can flow up to 100 mph.