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Cavernosal artery dilation

Prolonged low-flow priapism causes structural impotence. We describe a case where potency has been preserved by off-centre corporal dilation to spare the cavernosal arteries. The patient suffered from idiopathic priapism lasting more than 72 hours before presentation The most common vascular cause is atherosclerosis of cavernous arteries of the penis. This is often related to smoking and diabetes. Atherosclerosis and aging decrease dilation capacity of arterial blood vessels and smooth muscle relaxation. This limits how much blood can enter the penis As neurotransmitters dilatate cavernosal and helicine arteries to the penis and relax the trabecular smooth muscle, the lacunar spaces in the penis become engorged with blood Nitric oxide also induces arterial dilatation. 97 The actions of nitric oxide on the cavernosal smooth muscle and the arterial blood flow are mediated through the activation of guanylyl cyclase, the production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), and the activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (also called protein kinase G, or PKG) (see Fig. 20-6). cGMP causes smooth muscle relaxation by lowering intracellular calcium

Various parameters, such as diameter of the cavernosal artery, peak systolic flow velocity, degree of arterial dilatation and acceleration time, have been suggested for the diagnosis of arteriogenic ED, but peak systolic flow velocity is the most accurate indicator of arterial disease The helicine arteries are unique in that they allow blood to pass directly into the cavernous sinusoids without first traversing a capillary bed. They also allow elongation and dilation of the penis without compromising the blood supply to the corpora [ 9 ]. Fig. 7.9 Arterial supply within the penis All patients with ED underwent complex evaluation and ultrasound assessment of postocclusive changes in the diameter of cavernosal arteries modified by us and standard ultrasound assessment of endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery Direct or Type A CCFs are the most common type and form a direct connection between the cavernous segment of the ICA and the cavernous sinus. This high-flow variant of CCFs causes retrograde blood flow from the cavernous sinus into the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) leading to dilation of the SOV and ophthalmic clinical manifestations The arterial diameter and waveform of each cavernosal artery is individually assessed. Peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities are measured and recorded. An asymmetric response of the cavernosal arteries during erection or a lack of arterial dilation may suggest the presence of a significant vascular inflow obstruction

Cavernous Artery - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

All participants also underwent our modification of ultrasound (US) assessment of postocclusive changes in the diameter of cavernosal arteries and endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD. Finally, the cytosolic Ca + + depletion causes cavernosal SMC relaxation leading to increased blood inflow through the helical arteries, sinusoidal filling and cavernosal dilation. At the same time, VSMC relaxation is related to the opening of K + channels ( Figure 2 ) The right cavernosal artery is imaged 15 min after intracavernosal injection of 0.25 mL of trimix solution. The measured vessel diameter is 0.89 mm. The direction of flow and a dorsal branch of the cavernosal artery is easily appreciated with color Doppler. Cavernosal artery dilation less than 75 %, Acceleration time > 110 ms. In cases of. Penile erection is accomplished by engorgement of cavernous spaces within the corpora cavernosa under near-arterial pressures and involves dilation of arterial inflow, relaxation of corpora cavernosa smooth muscle, and constriction of venous outflow. 12 The blood flow to the penis is supplied by the cavernosal arteries and their branches, the.

Helicine Artery - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

Cavernosal artery wasinterrupted atvarious sites, andseveral prominent spongiosal collateral arteries (arrows) werepresent. (b)Parasagittal color Doppler flowimage ofthecontralateral cavernosal artery (same patient asina)demonstrates retrograde flowwithin thecavernosal artery, presumed secondary toproximal occlusion Basis of normal erectionPhases of erection .  After neural impulse there is rise in the intracavernosal presssure -There is cavernosal Flaccid arterial dilatation and rise in the systolic and diastolic flow Latent. The dorsal venous flow also rises initially Bulbourethral artery, dorsal artery of penis, cavernous (deep/cavernosal) artery of penis; Superficial dorsal, deep dorsal, circumflex, crural, and cavernous (deep/cavernosal) veins of penis: It has a proximal dilation that projects into the root of penis, i.e. the bulb of penis Complex evaluation was performed in all patients with ED. All participants also underwent our modification of ultrasound (US) assessment of postocclusive changes in the diameter of cavernosal arteries and endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery before and 1 h after administration of 20 mg of vardenafil or placebo The lacunar endothelium adjacent to the fistula is exposed to oxygenated blood with high-velocity turbulent flow, which creates a shear stress and stimulates the release of nitric oxide, resulting in dilatation of the cavernosal arteries and distention of the cavernous spaces (, 32)

Cavernosal artery. Corpus cavernosum. Urethral artery. Urethra. Corpus spongiosum. Buck's fascia. Circumflex veins. Tunica albuginea. • Relaxes trabecular smooth muscle by dilation of cavernosal arteries promoting arterial flow and blood entrapment within the lacunar spaces of the penis This dilation of the cavernosal arteries is accompanied by increased arterial inflow velocity, along with increased venous outflow resistance; which allows for more blood to flow into the penis and less blood to flow out of the penis. Bacteriostatic water and mixing syringe provided. Needles and syringes for injection are ordered separately Various parameters, such as diameter of the cavernosal artery, peak systolic flow velocity, degree of arterial dilatation and acceleration time, have been suggested for the diagnosis of. Pathways of penile erection: Dilation of cavernosal arteries and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of cavernosal spaces is mediated by the nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway. NO is derived from nonadrenergic, noncholinergic nerves (nNOS, NOS type I), and the endothelium (eNOS or NOS type III) of cavernosal sinuses (both.

Penile Artery - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

Artery Dilatation - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

The cavernosal arteries being of smaller diameter means that vasculogenic ED often precedes coronary artery disease, myocardial infarctions and strokes by up to five years. [3] [21] Younger men who present with unexplained ED appear to have a very significant increase, up to fifty-fold, of their cardiovascular risk in later life compared to an. Priapism, a relatively uncommon disorder, is a medical emergency. Although not all forms of priapism require immediate intervention, ischemic priapism is associated with progressive fibrosis of the cavernosal tissues and erectile dysfunction. 1, 2 Thus, all patients with priapism should be evaluated emergently in order to intervene as early as possible in those patients with ischemic priapism Pulse Doppler analysis studies with intracavernous vasoactive drug injections have established that a peak cavernosal artery systolic flow greater than 25 ml/sec is required for erection to occur (68- 71). At full rigidity, an increase in penile length of 7.5 cm usually requires the entrapment of 80-115 ml of blood The normal arterial supply to the penis is via the internal pudendal artery (a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery), which divides into terminal branches: The dorsal penile artery (supplying the glans penis), the cavernosal artery (supplying the corpora cavernosa), and the bulbar artery (supplying the bulb and the.

A potent hormone-like substance that induces erection by relaxing the penis's blood vessels and dilating cavernosal arteries-dilation of the cavernosal arteries. It is accompanied by increased arterial inflow velocity and increased venous outflow resistance allowing for more blood into the penis and less blood out Fig. 16.1. The distribution of the common penile artery. Note the dual blood supply to the urethra. Proximal vascularity is supplied by the arteries to the bulb and the circumflex cavernosal arteries. Distally, the blood supply is provided by the arborization of the dorsal artery and perforators from the cavernosal artery. (from [9]) the penis

Alprostadil induces erection by relaxation of trabecular smooth muscle and by dilation of cavernosal arteries. This leads to expansion of lacunar spaces and entrapment of blood by compressing the venules against the tunica albuginea, a process referred to as the corporal veno-occlusive mechanism. Pharmacokinetics The increased spaces in the spongy erectile tissue caused by relaxation of trabecular smooth muscle and the increased blood flow into these spaces, due to dilation of cavernosal arteries are both actions of alprostadil in Caverject injected directly into the corpus cavernosum of the penis that cause an erection The bulbourethral artery supplies the urethra and glans. The dorsal artery branches into circumflex arteries, which supply the spongiosum and urethra. Finally, the cavernosal arteries branch once more to form the helicine arteries, which dilate with neural stimulation to produce an erection. There are multiple anastomotic connections between. In most patients, one cavernosal artery pen-etrates each corpus cavernosum and runs through it in a central position; numerous small vessels with a tortuous course, the helicine arteries, branch from the cavernosal arteries and split into arterioles that communicate directly with the cor-poreal sinusoidal spaces. The helicine arterie through penile duplex study to assess cavernosal artery dilatation as well as penile hemodynamics (PSV, EDV and RI) while evaluating the effect of intracorporeal injection (ICI) of (Papaverine 30 mg/Verapamil 5 mg) in comparison to the traditional bi-mixture (Papaverine 30 mg/ Phentolamine 1 mg)..

Secondary diagnostic criteria include failure of cavernosal artery dilatation and asymmetry of caversonal flow velocities of greater than 10cm/sec. 4,5 Venous insufficiency: Venous incompetence or veno-occlusive failure may represent the most common cause of vasogenicimpotence. 6 The principal investigators used in arterial end-diastolic. Cavernous nerves and branches of the internal pudendal artery are located near the apex of the prostate and pass through the urogenital diaphragm to enter the corporal bodies. The distal internal pudendal artery becomes the common penile artery, which gives rise to the cavernosal (deep penile) and dorsal penile arteries, which are vital for. Traumatic self-amputation of the penis by a psychotic patient is rare. Microvascular replantation is the favored management approach. There are no known cases of self-amputation followed by ingestion of the stump and subsequent replantation. A 51-year-old patient with paranoid schizophrenia presente or penile blunt trauma with direct cavernosal artery injury and formation of an arterial-lacunar fistula (3-13). Rarely, cavernosal artery injury may result from penetrating trauma (5,10,12,13). Patients with high-flow priapism usually develop a painless partial erection and are able to increase rigidity with sexual stimulation

Long-standing ischemic priapism leads to cavernosal smooth muscle necrosis and erectile dysfunction [1]. We report a 28-year-old gentleman who presented with 3-week duration of neglected idiopathic ischemic priapism. As his stretched penile length was 9 cm, he was taken up for immediate implantation of penile prosthesis. With minimal difficulty in corporal dilation due to scarring, a 3-piece. ultimately aects dilatation of the cavernosal arteries and brosis of the corporal smooth muscles [5]. Also, age-related changes are observed in the erectile tissues because α 1 - adrenergic receptor subtypes are modu-lated by ageing [6]. Induction of vascular smooth muscle by phenyllephrine is reduced particularly in the caver

Pathways of penile erection: Dilation of cavernosal arteries and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of cavernosal spaces. Biomedicines + + 9. Anatomy, Pathophysiology, Molecular Mechanisms, and Clinical Management of Erectile Dysfunction in Patients Affected by Coronary Artery Disease: A Review. The echogenicity of the corpora cavernosa progressively decreases during tumescence starting from the region surrounding the cavernosal arteries because of sinusoids dilatation . During maximal penile rigidity, a fine echogenic network is appreciable in the corpora cavernosa due to sinusoidal interfaces (Fig. 45.10 ) [ 5 ] If there is no cavernosal artery flow or a RI greater than 1.0 absent diastolic flow. has been shown to be highly specific in predicting priapism. Decreasing echogenicity of the corpora cavernosa from the peri arterial region is seen as sinusoidal dilation progresses Arterial blood supply to the penis originates from the internal iliac arteries. ___ ___ arteries each divide to form a ____ artery and a ____ artery. Nerve stimulation results in dilation or constriction of the cavernosal and belicine arteries. dilation Medical treatment for prostatic enlargement, hypertension and psychosomatic disorders is also known to affect erectile function in view of the effects of the drugs on the endothelial health which ultimately affects dilatation of the cavernosal arteries and fibrosis of the corporal smooth muscles

Small artery arising from the inferior epigastric artery, which supplies the peritesticular tissue, including the cremasteric muscle Abnormal dilation of veins of the pampiniform plexus; usually caused by incompetent venous valves within spermatic vein. Hernia. cavernosal arteries. Supple blood to the main erectile tissue. Dorsal artery Transcript. Slide 1-. Emergency in Urology Dr. Abdelmoniem E. Eltraifi Consultant Urologist College of Medicine & The Medical City King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Slide 2-. Compared to other surgical fields, there are relatively few Urological Emergencies. Slide 3-

The aging male requires the arteries or atherosclerosis, hypertension and hypercholesterol- more penile stimulation; it takes longer to get an erection and the emia may result in ED. -5 inhibitors and cGMP neurons release Ach at the ganglion, which acts on nicotinic recep- act as effectors of dilation of smooth muscle of cavernosal bodies. You can write a book review and share your experiences. Other readers will always be interested in your opinion of the books you've read. Whether you've loved the book or not, if you give your honest and detailed thoughts then people will find new books that are right for them El Global Index Medicus (GIM) proporciona acceso mundial a la literatura biomédica y de salud pública producida por y dentro de los países de ingresos medianos y bajo cavernosal and branching helicine arteries within each cavernosal body are constricted. During the transition to the erect state, sacral parasympathetic stimulation causes the dilation of the cavernosal and helicine arteries, enabling a higher rate of blood flow into the penis. Concomitant relaxation of th

Cavernosal arteries diameter after injection in both right and left sides was 1.10±0.18 and 1.09±0.19 mm at the start and became 1.34±0.39 and 1.27±0.33 mm respectively at the end with. nerves, resulting in dilatation of cavernosal arteries and influx of blood flow which compresses venous plexuses, reducing outflow. This results in erection. 9,10. Thus shows that normal erection requires functioning nervous system, increased arterial flow and decrease venous outflow. Hence in pelvic fracture, erectile dysfunction ma Causes vasodilation by means of direct effect on vascular and ductus arteriosus smooth muscle; relaxes trabecular smooth muscle by dilation of cavernosal arteries when injected along the penile shaft, allowing blood flow to and entrapment in the lacunar spaces of the penis (ie, corporeal veno-occlusive mechanism

Intracavernosal Injection for the Diagnosis, Evaluation

  1. The molecular weight is 354.49. Alprostadil is a white to off-white crystalline powder with a melting point between 115° and 116°C. Its solubility at 35°C is 8000 micrograms (mcg) per 100 milliliter double distilled water. CAVERJECT IMPULSE is available as a disposable, single-dose, dual chamber syringe system
  2. CAVERJECT IMPULSE is available in two versions: the 10 mcg strength (white plunger) and the 20 mcg strength (blue plunger). Each syringe is designed to be used only one time, but you can select the dose that will be delivered: . The 10 mcg strength syringe (white plunger) can deliver 10 mcg (the full dose), or one of three partial doses: 7.5 mcg, or 5 mcg, or 2.5 mcg
  3. Surgical cavernosal - spongiosum shunt. Corporal dilation with or without immediate penile prosthesis placement. Recurrent or Stuttering priapism shares many treatment goals with ischemic priapism, with acute therapy focused on achieving detumescence and chronic therapy focused on preventing recurrences. Emergency management should be focused.
  4. A corpus cavernosum penis (singular) (literally cave-like body of the penis, plural corpora cavernosa) is one of a pair of sponge-like regions of erectile tissue, which contain most of the blood in the penis during an erection.. Such a corpus is homologous to the corpus cavernosum clitoridis in the female; the body of the clitoris that contains erectile tissue in a pair of corpora cavernosa.
  5. The branches of the common penile artery are variable but classically consist of three: the bulbourethral artery, the dorsal artery of the penis, and the cavernosal artery. While the iliac, pudendal, perineal, and common penile arteries can be evaluated with three-dimensional MR angiography, the smaller end arteries of the penis have not yet.
  6. g the dorsal artery (DA) of the penis. The bulbar artery divides into numerous branches (arrowheads) supplying the bulbus of the corpus spongiosum
  7. (NO); 2) dilation of cavernosal arteries and the helicine arterioles of the penis, providing flow and pressure to the corpora; 3) the relaxation of the trabecular smooth muscle, allowing expansion of the lacunar spaces and trapping of blood by compression of the draining venules; and 4) compliance of the tunica albuginea an

Corpus Cavernosum Penis Anatomy, Function & Diagram Body

  1. Alprostadil induces erection by relaxation of trabecular smooth muscle and by dilation of cavernosal arteries. This leads to expansion of lacunar spaces and entrapment of blood by compressing the venules against the tunica albuginea, a process referred to as the corporal veno-occlusive mechanism. Pharmacokinetic
  2. More recent studies have also included the assessment of PSV of the cavernosal arteries, measured using the Doppler Ultrasound method, for the evaluation of patients treated with LI-ESWT [8, 24, 25]
  3. Penile erection is a complex phenomenon that is coordinated by the interaction of the arterial, venous, and nervous systems. A defect or incoordination in any of these systems may result in erectile dysfunction (ED), which is defined as the persistent inability to attain or maintain penile erection sufficient for sexual intercourse [1-3].ED is a common medical disorder that primarily affects.
  4. ute intervals from 1 to 25.
  5. e the penile vessels
  6. triggers a relaxation of both cavernosal arteries and smooth muscle. This increases penile blood flow, causes dilation of the lacunar space and, eventually, an erection. In DM, it has been shown that endothelium-dependent smooth muscle relaxation is impaired, although the exact mechanism is not known (12,13). Endothelial dysfunction (the small.

SM relaxation in cavernosal arteries, with concomitant dilation and increased rate of flow, facilitates this process. Pressure increases in the penis because the engorged sinusoids become compressed within the relatively noncompliant tunica albuginea layer The bulbar artery supplies the proximal shaft and is the first branch of the penile artery, which then divides into the dorsal and cavernosal arteries . The cavernosal artery enters and supplies the corpora cavernosal via several helicine arteries, which in turn flow into the sinusoids via multiple arterioles After two months the cavernosal artery was patent and the patient recovered normal erectile function. Our case is a previously unreported occurrence of priapism, caused by arterio‐lacunar fistula associated with extravasation of blood from the cavernosal artery during hemodialysis. resulting in vascular and trabecular dilatation through.

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Caverject may cause serious side effects including: lightheadedness, bleeding after an injection, painful erection that last 4 hours or longer, new or worsening pain in your penis, and. redness, swelling, tenderness, lumps, unusual shape or curving of the erect penis 45 Alprostadil induces erection by relaxation of trabecular smooth muscle and by dilation of cavernosal arteries. 46 This leads to expansion of lacunar spaces and entrapment of blood by compressing the venules against the tunica 47 albuginea, a process referred to as the corporal veno-occlusive mechanism. 48 49 Pharmacokinetics 5 Induces erection by relaxing trabecular smooth muscle and dilating cavernosal arteries and their branches (i.e., the helicine arterioles of the penis). Increases arterial inflow velocity and venous outflow resistance resulting in penile blood engorgement and erection Penile Duplex ultrasound of congenital isolated cavernous bodies demonstrates: (A) unilateral dilation of his left cavernous body after injection of 5 ug prostaglandin E-1 (PGE-1) without dilation of the right cavernous body; and (B) left cavernosal artery had a peak systolic velocity (PSV) of 20 cm/s.(C) The complete septum was identified (arrows) on the sagittal view when the right. artery (supplying the glans penis, distal cor-pus spongiosum and penile skin), the caver-nosal artery (supplying the corpora caverno-sa), and the bulbourethral artery (supplying the urethra and proximal corpus spongio-sum). The cavernosal artery divides by the helicine arteries, which directly communi-cate into the lacunar spaces of the corpo

The penile artery terminates in the dorsal penile artery, which runs outside the corpus cavernosum on the dorsum of the penis. There it divides, usually anastomosing with the contralateral dorsal artery and distal branches of the urethral artery. The helicine arteries arising from the cavernosal arteries cannot be observed angiographically. Systolic occlusion pressures in the left and right cavernosal arteries are also measured, which can help identify arterial occlusion or stenosis in the cavernous arterial bed . Historically, erectile dysfunction caused by veno-occlusive dysfunction was treated by surgical ligation of the deep dorsal vein Impaired brachial artery endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation in men with erectile dysfunction and no other clinical cardiovascular disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 2004. Alan Bank. Carol Mason. K. Billups. Alan Bank. Carol Mason. K. Billups. Download PDF The penis may be a more sensitive vascular bed to systemic disease because of the small diameter of the cavernosal arteries than the larger vessels in the heart, he added Usually, high-flow priapism is caused by perineal or penile blunt trauma with direct cavernosal artery injury and formation of an arterial-lacunar fistula (, 3-, 13). Rarely, cavernosal artery injury may result from penetrating trauma (, 5 10 12 13). Patients with high-flow priapism usually develop a painless partial erection and are.

Penile Blood Flow Flashcards Quizle

Description: Alprostadil, a naturally occurring prostaglandin E 1, is a vasodilating agent and a platelet aggregation inhibitor. It induces erection by relaxation of the trabecular smooth muscles and dilation of cavernosal arteries, allowing blood flow to the lacunar spaces of the penis. It also relaxes the smooth muscles of the ductus arteriosus Erectile Dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, affects a large segment of the male population over 40 years of age. ED results from impaired relaxation of the smooth muscle cells in the corpus cavernosum and in the penile arteries. Upon sexual stimulation, the increase in parasympathetic activity results in dilation of the cavernosal arteries and increased blood flow A venous leak is considered when no erection is noted despite normal arterial dilation and normal blood flow. as fibrosis and calcifications of the erectile muscle as well as change in the measurements of the diameter of each cavernosal artery in response to the penile injection. At the same time, the pulsed Doppler ultrasound records and.

How Clogged Arteries Can Lead to ED - WebM

Secondary diagnostic criteria include failure of cavernosal artery dilatation and asymmetry of caversonal flow velocities of greater than 10cm/sec.4,5 Venous insufficiency: Venous incompetence or veno-occlusive failure may represent the most common cause of vasogenicimpotence.6 The principal investigators used in arterial end-diastolic velocity o Anatomy: Shaft of Penis. Corpus Cavernosum (two) Two large columns of erectile tissue on penile dorsum. Columns separated by septum of fibers. Tunica albuginea. Bands together the two columns of corpus cavernosa. Lacunar space (Space of Smith) Surrounds tunica albuginea. Intralacunar smooth muscle found within space After administration of the vasodilator, various penile hemodynamic parameters are measured, typically including cavernosal artery peak systolic velocity, cavernosal artery end diastolic velocities, maximum arterial dilation, and pressure. Based on these measurements, a determination is made as to whether penile vascular insufficiency is present

Various parameters such as the pre- and post-injection cavernosal artery diameter, peak systolic velocity, degree of cavernosal artery dilatation and acceleration time have been used for the diagnosis of arteriogenic cause while persistent increased end diastolic flow used for venous insufficiency. However, the peak systolic velocity is the. OBJECTIVE To evaluate prospectively and compare the clinical response and the change in nucleotides correlating with haemodynamic changes in the cavernosal arteries after an intracavernosal injecti.. Erectile dysfunction (ED) is defined as the inability to achieve or maintain a penile erection, resulting in difficulty to perform penetrative sexual intercourse. Local penile factors and systemic diseases, including diabetes, cardiac disease, and neurological disorders, can cause ED. Diagnosis is via physical exam and history The branches of the penile artery are the dorsal artery, the bulbourethral artery, and the cavernosal artery (CA). The CA is responsible for the tumescence of the corpus cavernosum, and the dorsal artery is responsible for the engorgement of the glans penis during erection. Distally, three branches of penile arteries join to form a vascular. Penile urethral strictures are common and impact on quality of life and health-care costs. Management of penile urethral strictures is complex and depends on the physical characteristics of the stricture. Contemporary studies show no difference between urethral dilation and internal urethrotomy in terms of long-term outcomes. Overall, long-term success rates range from 20 to 30%

Doppler Ultrasound of the Penis Radiology Ke

of the size and dilatation of the cavernous arteries and of the blood velocity in the cavernous and dorsal arteries.4 - 7 Corporeal smooth muscle relaxation is a prerequisite to the correct diagnosis of ED resulting from vascular dysfunction. Intracavernosal injec-tions might elicit significant anxiety in some patients, thus, inhibiting. Long-Term Effect of Inhibition of the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) on Cavernosal Perfusion in Men with Atherosclerotic Erectile Dysfunction: A Pilot Study. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 2005. Paul Smits. Lambertus Kiemeney. Paul Smits. Lambertus Kiemeney. Download PDF Erection occurs in response to nitric oxide signals by sympathetic nervous system to the arterioles in the penis causing them to dilate when a male is arroused, the dorsal and cavernosal artery fill the corpora convernosae and corpus spongisome. the brain receives a signal once erect and releases norepinephrine from the sympathetic nervous sytem to the epididymis, vas deferens , accessory.

Vascular dilatation and congestion with areas of necrosisUltrasound measurementsummD - Urethral strictures