Fish breeding PDF

farmed fish is obvious. The long term breeding goal should be to establish specialized and high performing breeds for fish farming. The process of designing breeding programs for fish populations is discussed, and some solutions are suggested. INTRODUCTION The history of fish farming probably dates back as far as 2000 B.C. Fish Breeding Secrets 2 Breeding Aquarium Fish Anyone who wants to breed Aquarium fish successfully has to know the requirements of the fish in question. Plus you have to cre maintenance tank or a special breeding tank. better chance of survival. Cave layers, such as the blind cave fish, will lay their eggs in dark places fish have been produced. Most of the ornamental fishes are form Asian origin Ornamental fish species are popularly known as aquarium fish (Laha and Das, 2007). The culture of this species has become a source of employment generation for the rural people. Breeding and production technology of ornamenta

The extraordinary effort needed to care for and breed fish for the purposes of conservation requires that those who make the effort be philosophically committed to the task. Without a positive perspective and the resulting motivation, participants in Aquatic Conservation Network programs are likely to give their captive breeding efforts a very lo If the fish sur vives it will initiate the next breeding season (ripening) at the developing phase, i.e. will not return to the immature phase as maturation occurs once in the lifetime as.

(PDF) Fish Reproduction - ResearchGat

7.4% of the total farmed fish production of 69,434 mt in Africa in 1994. To a large extent the poor performance of this freshwater fish species in Africa has been due to the absence of reliable production techniques for the reproduction and rearing of the species under practical f arming condition The book Ornamental fish breeding, culture and trade is a course material for the participants. This book will be of great help for the entrepreneur in acquiring the basis knowledge on the subject. To practice selective breeding in a structured manner, breeding programmes are set up with breeding goals and traits to be measured to achieve those goals. Major traits of interest for the European fish breeding industry used in breeding programmes are production efficiency, disease resistance, product quality and adaptation to alternative diets

(PDF) A review on induced breeding in fishe

DESIGN OF FISH BREEDING PROGRAMS H.B. Bentsen and B. Gjerde AKVAFORSK, P.O.Box 5010, N-1432 As, Norway INTRODUCTION Even though fish farming has been widely practised for thousands of years, the farmed fish species have not gone through a process of genetic domestication comparable to that of farmed species of mammals and birds In aquarium and pond fish, healthy breeding stock must be of spawning age. You will need to research the nutritional and environmental needs of the particular species you want to breed. These conditions are almost as varied as the number of fish species (see Table: Types of Fish Reproduction). Proper substrate, cover, temperature, pH, live. Fish Breeding, Breeding of Fish and Fingerling Production for Aquaculture Interest, Fish breeding and genetics Bringing blue revolution to the desert One species of Indian major carps (Labeo rohita) and one species of exotic carp (Cyprinus carpio) were breed by induced breeding method between 19.3.1998 and 8.4.1999 using CIFE D-81 unit which. Fish breeding in India is no longer a complicated technique. Several hormones are being used for induced breeding of fish on commercial scale using Chinese type hatchery mostly at the private sector. A new spawning agent, Ovopel was evaluated for spawning of Indian carps in Assam, India. The study conducted by Das (2004 To breed guppies, the sad fact is that one must routinely remove and euthanize fish. Large, well-fed females produce ~50-80 babies every ~4 weeks. One cannot realistically raise or sell all these fry. Nor should one keep sickly and deformed guppies in a breeding colony. Rigorous culling is essential for maintaining quality

Catfish farming banned, but stocks pose danger - The Hindu

History of induce breeding in fishes The first attempt of induced breeding by using pituitary extract was done by B.A. Houssay (1930) in Argentina on a viviparous fish [23]. He was successful in obtaining premature birth of young fish. Subsequently, based on the lines of Houssay, Von Ihering and his team of Brazil, in 1934 The catfish farming techniques pdf is one of the best and highly downloaded materials for catfish farming training. This catfish hatchery and table size production pdf equips catfish farmers with the basic knowledge, skill, and recent technology on catfish breeding and production such as: Selection of brooding stock. Pest and diseases management Discus Fish Breeding Discus Care Sheet Aqueon-Discus Breeding Level - Difficult Captive bred discus will pair up and spawn relatively easily but young inexperienced parents may eat their eggs the first few times particularly if other fish are present After hatching the young feed on heavy body mucus secreted by the parents for

The first genetically engineered fish were produced 20 years ago, and since that time over 35 species have been genetically engineered. Currently, no genetically engineered fish has been approved for food production in the United States. Compared with mammals, fish offer important advantages for genetic engineering because of the larg Finfish breeding and hatchery management pdf. Rivers were the major source of freshwater fish seed in India during 1950's and 1960's. Over the years, the riverine contribution has declined and at present forms only a supplementary source, constituting less than 5% of the country's total fish seed production between betta fish were short-lived, lasting only as long as it took for one of the fish to retreat. Over time, however, the Siamese began breeding these fish for size and stamina - the winner of the fight, after all, was the fish that continued to fight the longest. It wasn't until the 1800's that the popularity of this species skyrocketed Your discus fish are important to you and keeping them free of illness is a big for free to kindle Discus Fish Secrets care and breeding electronic books pdf discus fish secrets pdf. discus fish secrets pdf, discus fish secrets, discus fish breeding secrets. Efforts to recover these endangered fishes have emphasized reregulation of Simulate the mating season for perfect fish breeding. This is the period during which all fish mate in large numbers. Use a watering can or circular spray system to achieve the effect of a light shower on the surface of the water. Reduce the water level by emptying the basin in half and gradually filling it

cus fish, it is easy to see that all the fish in this aqua-rium are roughly the same size. This continuous selection process guarantees con-sistent quality standards. Also, fish that are required for breeding purposes can always be selected using this process. And this is how such superbly marked discuses, lik Breeding aquarium fish is one of the steps to becoming a skilled aquariast. Once fish are kept healthy enough to spawn, the novice knows that they can attempt to keep more challenging fish. In order to breed a species, the aquariast usually needs to be able to distinguish between the sexes and to be able to recreate natural conditions to. Induced Fish Breeding: A Practical Guide for Hatcheries takes a successive approach to explaining the use of breeding technology with proven scientific methods. It provides real-life examples for the purpose of maximizing fish and seed production to support overall sustainability in aquaculture. It is a concise reference to understanding the. Among the wide array of fish species, proper identification of each is a problem without reference to certain parameters In identifying fish, the parameters are drawn around the external and internal features. Occasionally. the breeding pattern according to Ogueri (2001) is used but that requires close examination of the fish in its habitat

Read Download Genetics And Fish Breeding PDF - PDF Downloa

  1. tion experiments for fish gave varying results. These reports about common carp and tilapia led to speculation that selection does not work for aquatic species. 2. Development of Breeding Plans Pioneering work in quantitative genetics, which is the theoretical basis for breeding programs, was published i
  2. raising the pH to extremely high levels), the breeding fish are added to the pool. Stocking rates for breeding ponds vary greatly, from as few as 50 fish to as many as 1000. Selection of brood fish is extremely important, since genetic variation within a strain of fish can be great. Only the best specimens should be stocked in the breeding pool
  3. View: 550. Download →. Genetics and Fish Breeding gives an intensive survey of this vital subject, featuring species which are reproduced economically, for example, salmon, trout, carp and goldfish. The writer, has drawn together an abundance of data, giving a book which ought to be purchased by all fish researcher, fisheries researchers.

Genetics and fish breeding : Purdom, C

(PDF) Farming of Tilapia: Breeding Plans, Mass Seed

induced fish breeding, aquaculture production in the country very much improved (Thien and Dan 1997). From 1990 to present, with the development of shrimp industry and sea farming, aquaculture contributes considerably to fish production for domestic consumption and export. It has become an importan fish breeding. Key words: Larvifeed culture, seed production, live feed management. 1. Introduction Marine ornamental fish production is considered as one of the most important trade in international markets. In the captive production system, the larval rearing of aquatic organisms is an indispensable step. and i Complete Boesemani Rainbow Fish Breeding PDF - Ebookinga in just a couple of clicks by using the guidelines below: Select the document template you require in the collection of legal forms. Choose the Get form button to open it and begin editing. Fill out the requested boxes (they will be yellow-colored)

The relative ease with which hybridization (cross-breeding) occurs between closely related fish species has several implications for the conservation of fish genetic resources. Unlike terrestrial farm animals, fish are very difficult, if not impossible, to recapture in the event of escape from culture facilities Successful fish breeding would solely be based on the environmental condition and body nutrition of the fish. A Must-Read: Fish Tank Heaters In this article, you would be able to learn the healthy breeding stock of the species they wanted to breed because each species has its needs, whether fishes are dwelling in an aquarium or a fish pond Induced breeding of warm water fin fishes and environmental factors affecting spawning INTRODUCTION • Houssay (1930) of Argentina - first to attempt induced breeding of fish by using pituitary extract on a viviparous fish • Subsequently, Von Ihering and his team of Brazil, in 1934, successfully induced bred a catfish with pituitary hormones and hence credit for the present day concept of.

(PDF) Ornamental Fish Breeding, Culture and Trad

El propósito principal de este libro es resumir la teoría genética cuantitativa, el básico ingredientes para la cría selectiva, y presentes métodos para el desarrollo eficaz de reproducción programas para las especies acuáticas basan en los último 3. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Induced breeding is a technique where byInduced breeding is a technique where by ripe fish breeders are stimulated by pituitaryripe fish breeders are stimulated by pituitary hormone or other synthetic hormonehormone or other synthetic hormone introduced to breed in captive condition.introduced to breed in captive. The Purple Body gene is located on an autosome. Breeding tests, involving this . 34. modification of orange spotting, reveal this trait to have an incompletely dominant mode of . 35. inheritance. As such a formal name and nomenclature of . Purple Body (Pb) has been . 36. suggested (Bias and Squire, 2017a) Note. : Hereafter Purple Gene, or.

Breeding and Reproduction of Fish - All Other Pets

  1. Breeding true tilapia as well as the tilapia species in the genera Sarotherodon and Oreochromis is easy. This article will focus on the true tilapias, i.e. the species belonging to the genus Tilapia. The biggest obstacle to breeding tilapia is usually to get a suitable pair. The easiest and cheapest method is to get a [
  2. Induced breeding of Asian cat fish Clarias batrachus of India by various hormonal analogues is reviewed based on published data. The breeding period of cat fishes in India is variable. Environmental factors play an important role in regulating reproduction in fishes. Pitutary gland extract, HCG and synthetic hormones viz., ovaprim and ovatide are successfully being tested for the induced.
  3. The most common breed of tilapia farmed around the world is the Nile tilapia, which accounts for roughly 75 per cent of farmed tilapia. Tilapia is a popular fish for aquaculture as it is very versatile and is tolerant of a variety of aquaculture environments; it can be farmed in brackish or salt water and also in pond or cage systems
  4. How to build a fish pond with plastic sheets. Fish Tank, easy steps to make a fish tank how to start small scale fish farm | Step by step procedures for bu..

Fish Breeding Research Papers - Academia

(PDF) Download Free Catfish Farming (Hatchery And Table

Terry Mitchell at A guide on breeding, feeding and caring for L333 Pleco on 2019-06-02 08:37:12; Terry Mitchell at A guide on breeding, feeding and caring for L333 Pleco on 2019-06-02 08:33:41; Berna768 at Details on keeping Siamese fighting fish with images and forums on 2019-01-24 05:31:0 Koi fish can be fun and valuable to breed, but the process can be time consuming. But that doesn't mean it's impossible! To get your koi to breed, you need to create the right environment for them. A clean pond is important for the health of the koi and their spawn. Use a specialized koi pond filtration system to keep the water clean during the. Most fish keepers may already have most of these items lying around, but here is a comprehensive list of all the items you'll need: Breeding Aquarium: 10 Gallons (38 Liters) This will need to be a separate tank from the ones you use to keep your breeding pair in. It'll be used to house the betta fry during the first couple of weeks after hatching

Finfish breeding and hatchery management pd

Betta Fish Breeding - Colors. The male and female you pick should be of the same tail type and color, in order to ensure you will have sellable fry. You shouldn't breed veil tails as breeding veil tails is discouraged, as the veil tail is a dominant trait. These are the most common betta tail type Genetics and Fish Breeding By C. E. PURDOM; Chapman and Hall, London, 1993; 277 pages; £39.95. Google Scholar . Download reference Place the breeding pair into their own aquarium, with the appropriate spawning substrate or decor, depending on their method of egg-laying. Provide them with an abundance of high protein food, feeding more often than you would normally feed your community aquarium fish, typically three times daily OK so a reasonable formula for seeing how many fish you have is 1 of fish per gallon. To you and me that's 2.5cm of fish to 3.8litres. A 4foot tank is 4foot= 120cm and a standard tank will be 45cm x 35 cm. So 120 x 45x 35 = 189000. To get litre divide by 1000...so 189000 / 1000 = 189litre. Now lets reduce the litres a bit because of lower. Best Conditions For Breeding. Guppies are tropical fish. Hence, temperatures between 75 and 85 degrees Fahrenheit are ideal. To encourage your guppies to breed, try to keep the water temperature at a constant 80 degrees Fahrenheit. Guppies are durable fish and prefer hard water. So, try to keep the water's pH level between 7.0 and 7.6

The water pH should be stable at 6.5 pH whereas temperature should be 86F degrees. Also, mineral content should be 100-200 microsiemens. These conditions should always be adjusted when they fluctuate in order to achieve stability which the discus fish need for survival and breeding. iv) Change 10% of the water daily Fish breeding includes commercially cultivating fish in ponds. In recent years, farmed fish for subsistence food has become common as more individuals strive to provide their families with safe supplies of farmed fish. In rivers, pools, or tanks, fish farming may be achieved on a small scale Breeding tetra fish is quite easy; all you need the right dedication and passion. You can have great fun in breeding the tetras if you do it the right way. You may need extra effort if this is your first time. However, following the proper instructions, you can also be an expert in no time Tank Size - The optimum breeding fish tank size for the pair of Bettas is ten gallons. You will need to add some decorations and plants to allow the fish some privacy; however, avoid using gravel for safety purposes for the female. Water - Maintain the water temperature at or close to 80 degrees and the depth to 2-3 inches below the rim of.

Complete Guide to Different Types of Koi Fish - (22 Major Koi Varieties) 25. One of the more popular types of koi is the taisho sanke or the taisho sanshoku koi fish. This fish, with its red black-white patterns, was first bred around 1868 to 1912. A fifteen-year-old taisho sanke was added to the koi varieties chart Fish breeding is synonymous to fish propagation which simply means multiplication. Breeding entails all the various techniques or methods which can be used or at least maintain a fish stock (i.e. methods of fish seed production). This concept in fish production is important when an increase demand for fish and for cultur important freshwater food fish species where salmons are the major cultured marine fish species [12]. Advantages of marker-assisted selection. MAS is profitable for the aquaculturist over conventional . selection methods when the traits show low heritability. It helps to discover the existing genetic diversity in breeding population Pisciculture, to increase the fish production, has a crucial limitation. Fish cultured in land-locked water bodies usually do not breed without the hormonal induction. Technology of fish breeding suffered for a long time due to the lack of suitable commercial product to induce the spawning of economically important fish. Hypophysation technique, where pituitary extract was used to induce the.

Discus Fish Secrets Pdf Free Download - 24/7 L'Afriqu

Breeding and hatching experiments were carried out at Lucky Fish Farm, Kurud, Dhamtari (Chhattisgarh State). Male and female brooders of Pangasianodonhypophthalmus (Sauvage, 1878) (Family Pangasiidae) were reared at M/S Hemant Chaudrakar Fish Farm at Dhamtari. At this farm, glass jar model of hatchery with 15 cemente Indian Journal of Biotechnology Vol.4, July 2005, pp. 307-315 FISH and GISH: Modern cytogenetic techniques J Devi1*, J M Ko2 and B B Seo3 1Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat 785 013, India 2 National Yeongnam Agricultural Experiment Station, Milyang 627 130, Korea 3 Department of Biology, Kyungpook National University, Taegu 702 701, Kore fish farming raising fish 38 in pens and cages FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS . is ricultural rchased as a 1 . Cattle breeding 12. Sheep and goat breeding 13. Keeping chickens 14. Farming with animal power 15. Cereals 16. Roots and tubers 17. Groundnuts 18. Bananas 19 Though many claim to breed plecos at a wide variety of temperatures, I have found that breeding them at 77-78 degrees works best. Moderate to normally bright lighting is fine for them. As with many fish that look to spawn in a safe environment where they hope to guard their eggs, try to provide opportunities for them to feel secure All of these fish reproduce in a very similar manner and for that reason this manual will concentrate on the Genus Trichogaster. It should be noted that many of the procedures for the reproduction of these fish can be successfully applied to many of the other genera of gouramis

Video: Fish breeding: How to do it? A step by step guide for

Europe's biggest hatchery THE BIG DISCUS FISH BOO

  1. Ø To increase breeding viability, avoid breeding of same fish for more than 2 years. Instead of that, fishes must be collected for far different places. Ø Farm made aqua pellets can be prepared by using different agricultural byproducts, for which a small pelletizer is required. The farmer can also use the commercial fish/prawn feed available.
  2. Other countries traditionally specializing in breeding and propagation of freshwater ornamental fishes are Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore, China (including Hong Kong), Malaysia, and Japan. More recently the culture of ornamen-tal fish has shifted to regions near consumer centers. For example for the European market, many aquarium fish ar
  3. Effect of training was studied on 40 trainees participated in 3 days training programme on Or- namental Fish Breeding & Culture organized at Dakshin Dinajpur Krishi Vigyan Kendra of Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Dakshin Dinajpur, West Bengal, India. Knowledge and attitude of fish farmers self-help group were studied before and after training towards ornamental fish breeding and culture
  4. AQUARIUM FISH BREEDING. Detailed information on creating ideal conditions for fish propagation in tanks. More then 35 full-colour photos plus dozens of detailed line drawing. Descriptions of many different species, tables and charts. £3.90 plus £2.10 postage . DAWE
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  6. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fish originThe T. zillii used in this study descended from a randomly mating population at the laboratory of Breeding and Production of fish, Animal and fish production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, (Saba-Bacha) Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

Breeding Methods for Tropical Freshwater Fis

Feed the fish twice a day, in the morning and early afternoon. Recommended feeding times are between 11am and 4pm. Always feed the fish at the same time and at the same place of your pond. You can call your fish by knocking on the feed bucket or making a sound. Fish will learn fast when and where to get the feed fish and sport fish that are commonly reared in ponds including catfish, tout, and striped bass can readily be grown in high densities when confined in tank systems. Species and Harvest Flexibility: RAS are currently being used to grow catfish, striped bass, tilapia, crawfish, blue crabs, oysters, mussels, and aquarium pets Ravelina Recometa-Velasco, Central Luzon State University, Science City of Muñoz, the Philippines and R.W. Ponzoni, Fish Breeding and Genetics Group, Subject: fish biotechnology Keywords: FAO ABDC-10 Created Date: 5/6/2010 11:12:02 A 2.7 A circular concrete fish breeding tank; also seen are aside-ways directed inlet and centrally located drain hole over which is fitted a straight perforated pipe covered by a copper screen.. . 30 2.8 Carp eggs incubating in zoug jars at a fish hatchery in Dinnye , Hungary.. . 3 Fish farmers are beginning to look more often to genetic improvement for gains in production. But improving the genetics of fish species can take a long time. With most fish, for example, it is difficult to keep track of individual males or females and thus the process of developing breeding stocks and improved lines could take a decade or more

Induced Fish Breeding ScienceDirec

  1. Marcel Huet: Textbook of Fish Culture. Breeding and Cultivation of Fish. In collaboration with J. a. Timmermans. - With 503 fig., 418 pp. West Byfleet, surrey and London: Fishing News (Books) Ltd. 1971. $ 12.5
  2. a guide to caring & breeding oscar fish Oscars are considered to be the most intelligent aquarium fish available to hobbyists. Oscars have an impeccable memory and are one of the few aquarium pets that can be trained to do tricks and individually distinguish its carer
  3. Aquarium fish breeding book pdf in hindi Inland Fish Culture Practices (Hindi Version) Click here to download document for more info (Size: MB, Format: PDF, Language: Hindi). - FREE Freshwater Aquarium Boo
  4. Less than 7% of the more than 2,000 traded marine aquarium fish species are farmed at any one time. Much of my career has focused on developing breeding techniques for difficult-to-raise marine ornamental fish species. In 2001, I founded Reef Culture Technologies (RCT) to develop culture techniques for pygmy angelfishes. RCT produced a number.

The fish you should be looking to purchase should be young and healthy and about 3-4 months of age. Fish at this age ship better and acclimate easier than mature fish. What's more, you will reap the benefit of having them during their peak breeding period, which runs from about three to seven months of age Today's most valuable ornamental fish include the platinum Arowana, peppermint angelfish, and freshwater polka dot stingray. These fish can fetch prices as high as $400,000 and above! Don't forget that your knowledge and skills in fish breeding are also vital to your business success. While it's easy enough to breed guppies, platies, and. In salmonids, which are fat fish, phenotypic and genetic parameters in flesh quality traits have been studied in several investigations while little has been done in other fish species. For traits like fat percentage, area of fat depot, and flesh colour in salmonids, relatively large genetic variation has been found. There is an unfavourable genetic correlation between body weight and the.

FISH breeding This study was conducted by the Tacana Indigenous People´s Council (CIPTA) and Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS). It was supported by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and the Blue Moon Fund. Created Date Breeding of tilapia is conducted in ponds, tanks or hapas. The stocking ratio for females to males is 1-4:1 with 2 or 3:1 being the most common. The brood fish stocking rate is variable, ranging from 0.3-0.7 kg/m 2 in small tanks to 0.2-0.3 kg/m 2 in ponds Breeding fish is one of the most rewarding aspects of fishkeeping and should be tried by everyone at least once. But before someone tries one of the more prolific fish, it's important to make sure there is a plan in place to deal with the legions of fish fry that are certain to arrive More than providing entertainment, this channel intends to open doors of livelihood opportunities especially to the under privileged and deprived through fis.. Freshwater fishes—Breeding. 3. Fish culture. 639.31 Dr Jorn Thodesen prepared a first draft of the manual. It was extensively edited, some sections were re-written and a few new ones introduced by Dr Raul W. Ponzoni. Ms Shirley Tan Saadiah prepared the data collection forms that appear in the Appendix

Fish Farming: Complete Business Starting Guide For Beginners. Fish farming means 'raising fish commercially in tanks, ponds or other enclosures for the purpose of producing food'. Commercial fish farming has already established as a profitable business venture throughout the world. Fish is a great source of food and protein The majority of people who keep this fish do so because they like the vibrant colors of the males. If you're only keeping them for their looks, we recommend that you keep males only. You can keep one Guppy per 2 gallons of water; for example, you can keep 5 in a 10-gallon tank and 10 in a 20-gallon tank While breeding fish can be quite lucrative once you get the hang of it, the concept rarely becomes something that you can make an all-out living from. Your fish won't require 24/7 attention so it won't be difficult to continue your job and deal with the fish in your spare time

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U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Identification The osprey is a large hawk. White undersides and a crook in its narrow wings identify this bird as it soars above the water. Adults are dark brown above with brownish-black marks on the wings and brown speckling on the breast. The head is white with a dark brown crown and brown streak down the cheek Worms will start breeding when they are about 90 days old. Each worm, possessing reproductive organs of both sexes, will produce an egg capsule per week, containing from three to 25 eggs apiece. The most economical way to establish worm bins for a home food-chain and composting operation is to begin with capsules. Although a littl It is by far the easiest method of breeding tilapia fingerlings for use in aquaponics, fish farming, and other recirculating aquaculture systems. Other methods of tilapia breeding, that are mentioned here for completeness, but aren't a part of this guide are: Cage - Including cages in ponds. Pen - Including pens with cages Fish reproductive organs include testes and ovaries.In most species, gonads are paired organs of similar size, which can be partially or totally fused. There may also be a range of secondary organs that increase reproductive fitness. The genital papilla is a small, fleshy tube behind the anus in some fishes, from which the sperm or eggs are released; the sex of a fish often can be determined. The first step in our 'How do Breed Betta Fish' guide involves setting up at the breeding tank. Bettas become extremely volatile during breeding. This is why you need a separate breeding tank where the mating of your Bettas, along with the raising of the fries, can take place The present study aims to produce a highly immune, genetically modified redbelly tilapia, Tilapia zillii with accelerated growth as a result of direct injection of shark ( Squalus acanthias L.) DNA into skeletal muscles of fish fingerlings at concentrations of 10, 20, 40 and 80 μg/fish. The results showed that the fish injected with 40 μg/fish had significant (Pl 20; 40 and 80 μg/fish of.