Nongqawuse poem

Poems are the property of their respective owners. All information has been reproduced here for educational and informational purposes to benefit site visitors, and is provided at no charge... 7/10/2021 5:26:46 PM # Nongqawuse. 1856 was a bad year for the Xhosa nation of the Wild Coast. Their lands had been taken by the British, drought had withered their crops, and their prized cattle were dwindling under a mysterious disease. The people were facing a hard winter when hope came in the shape of a young girl called Nongqawuse, the niece of a prophet Ndiyazingca ngemvelaphi yam, Nawe zingce ngemvelaphi yakho, Hlala phantsi umamele ndikubalisele iindaba. Hlala phantsi ndikubalisele elona bali ngoNongqawuse. Uzokuyazi ukuba kutheni ndisithi ndingunyana kaNongqawuse, Ndisisizukulwana sikaNongqawuse, Kwaye ndiyazingca ngezigqibo ezathatyathwa nguNongqawuse. I am the son of Nongqawuse, and I am tired of listening to people telling me, the wrong. Nongqawuse saw it in that long, long-ago dream: A great raging whirlwind would come. It would drive abelungu to the sea. Nongqawuse had but voiced the unconscious collective wish of the nation: rid ourselves of the scourge. She was not robbed. She was not raped. There was no quarrel. Only the eruption of a slow, simmering, seething rage Nongqawuse is said to have been an orphan and the niece of Mhlakaza. Mhlakaza's father was the councillor of Chief Sarhili. After Mhlakaza's mother died, he went to the Cape Colony and became familiar with Christianity. He returned to Xhosaland in 1853. Nongqawuse's parents died in the battles of the Waterkloof

Nonqawuse Poem by Gert Strydom - Poem Hunte

Nongqawuse was born in 1841 near the Gxarha River in independent Xhosaland but close to the border of the recently established colony of British Kaffraria in Eastern Cape South Africa. She was Xhosa. Little is known of Nongqawuse's parents as they died when she was young English and vernacular poems about Nongqawuse are numerous (see Bradford ). Leon Schauder's short film Nonquassi appeared in ; Mda, Matshikiza and Newman's television docudrama Day of the Two Suns: The Trial of Xhosa Prophetess Nongqawuse was distributed in

Nongqawuse - a Xhosa folksongPerformed at the Joburg Theatre on 21 March 2015After the performance of UShaka kaSenzangakhon UKZN Press presents DLP Yali-Manisi: Iimbali Zamanyange: Historical Poems, edited by Jeff Opland and Pamela Maseko: David Livingstone Phakamile Yali-Manisi (1926-99) was a Thembu imbongi, the most powerful exponent of the art of praise poetry in the Xhosa language, in the second half of the twentieth century. His literary career, however, was blighted by circumstances beyond his control, and. poems about Nongqawuse are numerous (see Bradford 2007). Leon Schauder's Leon Schauder's short film Nonquassi appeared in 1939 ; Mda, Matshikiza and Newman's televisio In a poem that reads like a reckoning with white ancestors, Nongqawuse and the New People brings about a noticeable shift in the tone of the collection. In this line, Godsell sharpens her teeth: asking White South Africans one of the central questions of Liquid Bones. With painful honesty, she details our litany of sins in this map of.

The Dead Will Arise: Nongqawuse and the Great Xhosa Cattle

Nongqawuse Wild Coas

Mayibuye High school- Msweli T.P He wrote plays about Nongqawuse (The Girl who Killed to Save), Prophet Ntsikana, King Shaka, King Dingane, Popular among his poems is the epic poem The Valley of a Thousand Hills, a precursor to Mazisi Kunene's epic poems Emperor Shaka the Great and Anthem of the Decades Mother to Mother: Chapter 10 Summary & Analysis. Mother to Mother: Chapter 10. LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in Mother to Mother, which you can use to track the themes throughout the work. Mandisa explains that there is some knowledge she's had with her for her entire life African literature is literature from Africa, either oral (orature) or written in African and Afro-Asiatic languages.. As George Joseph notes in his chapter on African Literature in Understanding Contemporary Africa, whereas European views of literature often stressed a separation of art and content, African awareness is inclusive and literature can also simply mean an artistic use of.

The stories can be written as a story or as a poem, it can be as long or short as it needs to be and it should be in English. Maybe one day, the book can be translated into all official languages. But this is a start - a way of bringing all the stories that we grew up with, that made us South Africans, together in one big beautiful Quivertree. The Story of Nongqawuse in South African Twentieth-Century Fiction Giuliana Iannaccaro Abstract to different literary genres (plays, poetry, short stories, novels, and films2). It is a story.

History Compass 7/6 (2009): 1428-1443, 10.1111/j.1478-0542.2009.00637.x The Xhosa Cattle-Killing Movement in History and Literature Andrew Offenburger* Yale University Abstract In South Africa's Eastern Cape frontier zone, a millenarian movement known as the Xhosa Cattle-Killing (1856-1857) devastated local populations and stunned observers The Prophesy. Nongqawuse and Mhalakaza said that those who had appeared to them were the spirits of their dead ancestors, who had come back to life in order to bring the Xhosa nation back to its former glory and to 'render the Xhosa the assistance they required in order to drive the white man out of the land'.. The cattle, said Nongqawuse, were at present in underground caverns waiting to. The Form and Themes of Mqhayi's Poetry and Prose. Author. Wandile F. Kuse. Publisher. University of Wisconsin--Madison, 1978. Original from. the University of Wisconsin - Madison. Digitized. Oct 29, 2008 Nongqawuse was a young, orphaned prophetess who lived with her uncle Mhlakaza, a Xhosa spiritualist, at the Gxarha River. Gcaleka - Wikipedia On 7 March 1860, in the wake of the great Xhosa cattle-killing, the Cape Colony again dis-annexed British Kaffraria, and it became a separate crown colony Camagu originally comes to Qolorha looking for a woman whose memory haunts him. The Heart of Redness, in which redness indicates traditional South Africa, is a multigenerational saga. The Heart of Redness, Mda's third novel, is inspired by the history of Nongqawuse, a Xhosa prophetess whose prophecies catalyzed the Cattle Killing of 1856-1857


  1. NONGQAWUSE 113 Mlashe, and Nxiti, son of Lutshaba. From the Ndlambes came Nowawe, son of Ndlambe. From the Gqunukhwebe came Dilima, son of Pato. All these men made their way to the home of Mhlakaza near the Gxara. On arriving there, they were told that Nongqause desired that the numbers to go to the Gxara be reduced, and that thos
  2. Back : NONGQAWUSE. The extraordinary events and consequences that were unleashed by the vision of the sixteen-year old Xhosa prophetess Nongqawuse that resulted in the death of thousands and thousands of Xhosa people in 1857 represent the violent and irreconcialable clash between tradition and modernity which in actuality was the outcome of the forceful entrance of European modernity into.
  3. Nongqawuse The True African Freedom Fighters. Skinned Dark, Rough In Complexion Creator's Mastered Creation Though Notified To Be Mvelinqangi's Rejected Child. Said Black pigment, displays Alah's Curse Upon You Dark skinned. Through Thy're Undying spirit, mandate passed to Prophet Radebe. I'll Unpack Africa's Hidden Truth
  4. ated in the Xhosa cattle killing crisis of 1856-1857, in what is now the Eastern Cap

Video: The Story of Nongqawuse Symbol in Mother to Mother LitChart

Nongqawuse South African History Onlin

Nongqawuse and the New People, Sarah Godsell; In Response to seeing an African woman abba a dog on Facebook, Connie Fick; Taped beak, Karin Schimke; In your silence, Makhosazana Xaba; Phantom, Karen Lazar; This is another poem about your face, Arja Salafranca; these tears, duduzile zamantungwa mabaso; #Taglines, Mandi Vundla; Recycling, Genna. Other notable publications include The Girl Who Killed to Save: Nongqawuse the Liberator (1936) by HIE Dhlomo, a poet, the deputy editor of Ilanga lase Natal and the first black dramatist in South Africa; Intlalo kaXhosa (1936) by TB Soga; Poems of an African (1946) by JJR Jolobe and Ingqumbo yeminyanya (1940) by AC Jordan Xhosa. INTRODUCTION The word Xhosa refers to a people and a language of South Africa. The Xhosa -speaking people are divided into a number of subgroups with their own distinct but related heritages. One of these subgroups is called Xhosa as well. The other main subgroups are the Bhaca, Bomvana, Mfengu, Mpondo, Mpondomise, Xesibe, and Thembu Summary: In the mid-19th Century, a teenage prophetess named Nongqawuse preached salvation for the Xhosa people. If the people would slaughter all of their cattle and burn all of their crops, the spirits of their ancestors would rise and drive their oppressors (the English colonizers) into the sea

praise-poem is elucidated by the straightforward historical record. Here we can only indicate briefly the nature of this co-operation: (1) The intellectual writes that, as a result of starvation, the victims of the Nongqawuse fraud have become homeless wanderers, out of touch with any form of tradition, because th Poetry Train Africa is the third book series to make up the Poetry Train Trilogy: A colorful combination of storytelling, poets, poetry, and railways. 3 men who travel Africa in the year of 2015 and &c Poetry Train Africa: Ethiopia = Redd Regatta, Andy Sandihands & Scratch with Boet Duve Fritz, Mathias, Mr. Welchberry & Charlie, Swanda, Mr. Books. Search the world's most comprehensive index of full-text books Kodwa wena umdala ngokwaneleyo kwaye uyakwazi ukucinga. Myeke ayigcine inkwenkwezi egolide yakho, watsho. UThoko wacinga umzuzwana. Iikona zenkwenkwezi egolide zaziphethukile zijonge phezulu, kwaye yayikhangeleka ngokungathi iza kuphinda iwe kwakhona. Kulungile, watsho uThoko

Poetry from South-Africa. Following in the footsteps of their predecessors, this new generation has taken up the social and revolutionary potential of poetry; they have grasped it between two hands, stretched it, pulled it apart, and moulded it back together in their own way, with an array of multi-disciplinary influences from hip-hop, jazz. This article examines how a poem and a painting, which both refer to the wreck of the troopship SS Mendi on 21 February 1917, offer different insights into the way they entered a fractured national memory, culture and history. SEK Mqhayi's traditional poem Ukutshona kuka Mendi: The sinking of the Mendi and Hilary Graham's painting The Wreck of the Mendi reveal how narratives reflected on. The Dead Will Arise: Nongqawuse and the Great Xhosa Cattle-Killing Movement of 1856-7. by. J.B. Peires. 3.84 · Rating details · 86 ratings · 7 reviews. Anyone who thinks that South Africa's problems began with the Afrikaners and apartheid should read this book. --Richard Dowden, The Independent. should remain the last word for the. The Heart Of Redness By Zakes Mda. 1347 Words6 Pages. Zakes Mda's novel The Heart of Redness takes place in both past and present Africa. In both time periods the country is torn by a conflict filled with strife surrounding the different views of the prophet Nongqawuse. Those who believe in her prophecies are appropriately referred to as.

Nongqawuse - Wikipedi

  1. In 1898, Nehanda Charwe Nyakasikana, or Mbuya Nehanda as she was known, was a powerful spirit medium, and heroine of the First Chimurenga, the revolt against the British South Africa Company in Matabeleland
  2. 1 of 5 stars 2 of 5 stars 3 of 5 stars 4 of 5 stars 5 of 5 stars. A Living Man from Africa: Jan Tzatzoe, Xhosa Chief and Missionary, and the Making of Nineteenth-Century South Africa (Paperback) by. Roger S. Levine. (shelved 1 time as xhosa) avg rating 4.00 — 2 ratings — published 2010. Want to Read. saving
  3. Poems For Africa. 669 likes · 2 talking about this. Anyone can post a poem up here; we are looking for socially relevant poems; we also will write a poem for a special occasion or a special someone
  4. Nongqawuse. Nongqawuse was a young Xhosa girl in the 19th century. She told her elders that spirits had appeared and had told her that if her people killed all their cattle, the White people would disappear in the sea. The Xhosa did this, but they were not freed from the White people. Instead, many of them died from hunger

(PDF) The Story of Nongqawuse in South African Twentieth

Why did the Xhosa kill their cattle? The mass cattle killing happened while the Xhosa people were at war with well-equipped British settlers. The movement was started when a Xhosa prophetess, Nongqawuse, claimed that if the Xhosa killed all their cattle and destroyed their corn, their ancestors would return to drive out the European settlers I Am an African - and none dare say I am not! By Vangile Gantsho on March 2, 2012 Black Conscious Opinion, Opinion and Book Reviews. In 1996, former South African president Thabo Mbeki stood in front of parliament and delivered one of the most inspiring speeches of his career: I Am an African. South Africa was an infant democracy then

I live in the times of Elisha. I live in our times. Where a new generation is arising. I live in the times where the power. Will be doubled on those who will stand for truth. Who will not be bought with silver or gold. I live in a time where the young have picked up the Freedom Mantle to Lead A poem by British poet Rudyard Kipling commenting on American imperialism. It basically advocated for the idea that it was the European's duty to spread their ideas and civilization to the other countries Common themes in african literature pdf The main themes are colonialism, subjugation , nationalism, culture contact and conflict,alienation,disillusionment and most recently, gender and homosexuality, poverty porn, disillusionment etc. Preview Preview The lead section of this article may need to be rewritten Sankofa SA, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal. 810 likes · 14 talking about this. SANKOFA is a movement for the emancipation of African people, mental decolonisation and shaping of a future where the African is..

Ghost Dance, either of two distinct cults in a complex of late 19th-century religious movements that represented an attempt of Native Americans in the western United States to rehabilitate their traditional cultures. Learn more about the history and significance of the Ghost Dance in this article The Journal of African Youth Literature (JAY LIT) is a non-profit initiative providing African youths with a platform to publish their writing. We also publish writing by other individuals that. Rewriting Modernity: Studies in Black South African Literary History connects the black literary archive in South Africa--from the nineteenth-century writing of Tiyo Soga to Zakes Mda in the twenty-first century--to international postcolonial studies via the theory of transculturation, a position adapted from the Cuban anthropologist Fernando Ortiz.David Attwell provides a welcome complication. An entire collection of epic poetry was created containing many picturesque details, very far from reality. The general view of the battle and its consequences was also far from reality. The battle of Kosovo was not a Crusade, nor was it the defense of Christianity, because the hinterland was hostile. At the time of the battle, Sigismund of. A fossilised skeleton of the famous Blinkwater Monster was found in the nearby Kat Valley by the road engineer and explorer, Andrew Geddes Bain in the mid 1800's.The Tyume (Chumie) is the major river that meanders through this lush valley that bears its name, below the Amatola Mountains. Shared the Tyume Valley

Gauteng Choristers performs Nongqawuse (Xhosa traditional

  1. David Livingstone Phakamile Yali-Manisi (1926-99) was a Thembu imbongi, the most powerful exponent of the art of praise poetry in the Xhosa language, in the second half of the twentieth century. His literary career, however, was blighted by circumstances beyond his control, and he died in total obscurity. Manisi was obliged to seek his audiences throughout the lifetime of South Africa's.
  2. es multiple historical and literary accounts of Xhosa prophecies leading to the 1856-57 cattle killing in the Eastern Cape of southern Africa through the lens of each moment's cultural and political perspectives. . .
  3. The Form and Themes of Mqhayi's Poetry and Prose. Author. Wandile F. Kuse. Publisher. University of Wisconsin--Madison, 1978. Original from. the University of Wisconsin - Madison. Digitized. 29 Oct 2008
  4. Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki, the second president of South Africa [June 1999 - September 2008], delivered this self-penned speech entitled I Am an African on May 8th, 1996. During this time Mbeki was serving as Vice President of South Africa under Nelson Mandela's post-Apartheid Presidency. The occasion was the passing of the new.
  5. ding them of the impending 'Gilikankqo'. This is in the hope that the reader will become aware of the centra
  6. This is a poem written and recited by Rev Michael Weeder, the Dean of St. George's Cathedral in Cape Town, on September 14th. Born of Mathew and Alice 'Mamcete'; brother to Bukelwa and Khaya and Nobandile, the lastborn. Death ambushed you on the road of your own Via Dolorosa: The way of suffering beyond Nongqawuse's place of

The story of Nongqawuse - a young Xhosa prophetess who in 1856 claimed to be the bearer of a message from the ancestors - was told and re-told orally in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, throughout the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries. The Xhosa population were to slaughter their cattle and burn their crops to see the prophecy fulfilled. (a poem transformed from an earlier poem I wrote) I am from Nongqawuse. I am from Angela Davis. I am from MaMbeki. I am from Mandela's mother. I am from Madam CJ Walker. I am from Winnie Madikizela-Mandela. I am from Stompie's mother. I am from Graca Michele. I am from Ngozi Okonjo-iwela The poetry mainly sung includes narrative epics, occupational verse, praise poems to rulers and other prominent people. Nongqawuse the Liberator in 1935 written by Herbert Isaac Ernest. the story of Nongqawuse. In milkwood grove opposite grave site, reading of At Nongqawuse's grave by Tony Voss, followed by comprehension exercise on poem. Visit to Cannon Rocks. History of the cannons discussed. Myths and legends of the sea. Ecological exercise on beach. Day

Nongqawuse met the spirits of three of her ancestors.She claimed that the spirits had told her that the Xhosa people should destroy their crops and kill their cattle, the source of their wealth as well as food. In return the spirits would sweep the British settlers into the sea. Poem by Rudyard Kipling. He wrote this poem in regards to the. Popular among his poems is the epic poem The Valley of a Thousand Hills, a precursor to Mazisi Kunene's epic poems Emperor Shaka the Great and Anthem of the Decades. Through poetry he paid homage to and significantly acknowledged his intellectual sparring partner, the immensely gifted Zulu poet and author Dr B.W. Vilakazi, whos

New: The Astonishing Poetry of Legendary Thembu Imbongi

The figure first clearly identified as prophet of liberation from colonial rule is Nxele. Like Nongqawuse, he called upon the amaXhosa to desist from witchcraft, anticipated the resurrection of the dead and their cattle, and looked forward to the expulsion of white settlers from the land (Crais 1992: 105; Peires 1989: 79) AiW note: Posts over 5 days this week, have introduced the epic endeavour of the Keiskamma COVID-19 Resilience Tapestry being made by the Keiskamma Art Project in the rural hamlet of Hamburg, South Africa, through the place, the people - its makers - and their histories. Marguerite Poland opened this series of posts on Monda

The poem is about the tragedies that have been befallen Tsonga men around South Africa, considering the effects this has had on the family unit. It is being recited by Tsonga people with varying backgrounds and histories but who have no connection with the artist. This formed an integral part of the rationale of Nongqawuse's prophecy. I AM AN AFRICAN POEM BY THABO MBEKI PDF. admin. September 27, 2020. In his famous I am an African, speech, which he delivered at the adoption of the The Republic of South Africa Constitution Bill in , Thabo Mbeki seeks to. Thabo Mbeki's I Am An African speech was echoed in night vigils, In poetry and history, former president Mbeki. In the past is the narrative of Nongqawuse, the 19th century prophetess whose visions brought a message from the ancestors and took her people to the brink of extermination. In the present time, 150 years later, a feud that dates back to the days of Nongqawuse still simmers in the village of Qolorha as it faces the demands of modernity Issue 3 presents poetry, short stories, plays, essays, visual stories and translations. Poetry by Kaushar Auleear, Emmanuel Mtema, Jerusha Marete, Beaton Galafa.

write about was Nongqawuse, the young Xhosa prophetess who brought about the cattle-killing of 1856-1857. Her televised trial was to be aired alongside the stories of Jan Van Riebeeck, Lord Kitchener, Dingane, and H.F. Verwoerd (www.imdb.com). In this rather strange historicization of the perpetrator trials of the Truth and Reconciliatio Olive Schreiner's novel, The Story of an African Farm (1883) is generally considered to be the founding text of South African literature. Schreiner was born on a mission station and worked as a governess on isolated Karoo farms, an experience that informed the novel. The novel draws on the post-romantic sensibility of Emily Bronte's. Such thinkers trace their inspiration back to Nongqawuse, a Xhosa woman who famously (if disastrously) prophesied the end of colonial rule during the 1857-1858 southern African famine. [5] French-ruled Africa — which includes countries that are now Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Senegal, Mali, and Cameroon — faced much different problems than.

Khaya: During my childhood, and as the political landscape was changing, my mother had an opportunity to buy a smallholding farm from another small town, Engcobo. We then moved from city to the countryside. By countryside, I'm talking about the most remote rural area I've ever lived in. Engcobo, Eastern Cape, SA Rhodes University - Where leaders lear

This Blood That Not Even the Mountains Can Hold: Megan

J.B. Peires, The Dead Will Arise: Nongqawuse and the Great Xhosa Cattle-Killing Movement of 1856-1857 (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1989). African Resistance. Terence Ranger, Revolt in Southern Rhodesia, 1896-1897: A Study in African Resistance (London: Heinemann, 1967) A History of the World in Verse (Excerpt- 1980s and 1990s) Thatcher and Khomeini came to power in '79, The former forcibly shut down her nation's coalmines. The latter led a revolution, bringing back the veil, And burned the flags of enemies like the US and Israel. The Argentine army landed on the Falkland Isles

Ingxoxo enkulu ngoNongqawuse (a great debate about

The poems address events in the first eighty years of the nineteenth century, and feature blunt assessments of figures such as Ntsikana, Ngqika, Nonesi, Sandile, Sir Harry Smith, Nongqawuse and Sir George Grey As for Nongqawuse herself—whose role in the episode may well have been no more than that of a tool in the hands of an uncle who, having fallen under Christian influence, cherished ambitions of becoming a gospel man himself—she lived out her life ostracized by her people. Mostert includes a photograph of her from the period, looking glum ATLANTA REVIEW vii QwaQwa Sun 46 Napo Masheane Katie had children 47 Ronelda Kamfer untitled 48 Vangile Gantsho Betel-nut 49 Francine Simon Wait Till the Rain Stops 47 Joan Ryan Yellow Dress 50 Mthunzikazi Mbungwana Wick 52 Siphokazi Jonas Check the Oven and the Stove 53 Mavis Smallberg Staying Abreast of Things 54 Selome Wellington First flush 55 Karin Schimk Religious poems included devotions, prophetic stories, and poems honoring the saints. Secular poetry could be about holidays such as births and weddings, or accounts of heroic warriors. [5] Nongqawuse The Liberator in 1935. In 1962, The First African wl of The Black Hermit, a warning story about tribalism (discrimination between African. U-Nongqawuse: ngo-1924 Mqhayi, Samuel Edward Krune: yincwadi: UBomi buka J.K. Bokwe: ngo-1925 Ndawo, Henry Masila: Incwadi yezibongo: Izibongo zenkosi zama-Hlubi nezama-Bhaca: ngo-1925 Sinxo, Guybon B. yidrama: Imfene kaDebeza: ngo-1925 Mqhayi, Samuel Edward Krune: incwadi yezibongo zabantwana: Imihobe nemibongo: ngo-1927 Sinxo, Guybon B.

I Am an African Poem by Thabo Mbeki Pd

Other notable publications include The Girl Who Killed to Save: Nongqawuse the Liberator (1936) by HIE Dhlomo, a poet, the deputy editor of Ilanga lase Natal and the first black dramatist in South. Zakes Mda won't talk about apartheid. The word appears neither in his acclaimed new novel, The Heart of Redness, nor in his 1995 debut work, Ways of Dying. Mda, who has won every major literar Search the world's information, including webpages, images, videos and more. Google has many special features to help you find exactly what you're looking for The girls returned home and told their families what had happened but they were not believed. Later, however, when Nongqawuse described one of the men, her uncle Mhalakaza, himself a diviner, recognised the description as that of his dead brother, and became convinced she was telling the truth. As a result, between April 185 The story of Nongqawuse's fateful vision which presaged the ruin of the Xhosa nation comes alive in a recording of contemporary Xhosa children singing a folk song about it. In Benghazi itself, men hang off a seafront wall, clapping and singing boisterously out of tune. It sets the rest off, all howling, barking, yipping, singing

Geko is an independent publisher of over 20 titles in English, Setswana and Sesotho - ranging from fiction, to poetry and non-fiction, with over 10-years' experience in publishing with multiple literature awards. www.gekopublishing.co.z Parts of the South African writer Zakes Mda's novel The Heart of Redness may have been taken from J. B. Peires's historical account The Dead Will Arise: Nongqawuse and the Great Xhosa. When Frieda reports on a poem she wrote about this day, 'Love at Logiesbaai (Whites Only)', we see that her reading of the scene differs. Her vision of the sea recalls instead that of Nongqawuse, whose prophecies led to what has become known as the Xhosa Cattle-Killing; it is Abstract. This Statement is a response to the challenge that the church and Christian communities around the world face as a result of the spread of the coronavirus pandemic and the regulations that have been imposed in order to control the spread of infections